Western Federation of Miners (WFM) was a radical labor union formed in 1893 to defend miners from misuses of technology, promote safer working conditions, and improve pay. In 1905, WFM joined the International Workers of the World (IWW), with William “Big Bill” Haywood, Secretary-Treasurer of WFM, being a keynote speaker at the IWW founding convention. In 1906 Haywood and WFM President Charles Moyer were charged with the murder of former Idaho governor, Frank Steunenberg. Defended by Clarence Darrow, both men were acquitted in 1907. William Haywood’s career with WFM ends when he has a falling out with Charles Moyer. Due to factionalism within the IWW, WFM leaves in 1907. In 1911 WFM joins the American Federation of Labor (AFL). In 1913-1914 the WFM was actively involved in supporting striking copper miners in Calumet, Michigan. During this bloody strike Charles Moyer and other union leaders were assaulted and on Christmas Day over eighty children were killed in a fire. The union changed its name to International Mine, Mill, and Smelter Union (IMMSU) in 1916. While the Union saw lean years in the 1920’s, there was a renewed interest after the New Deal and the Union expanded its activities to the Eastern and Southern regions of the United States. In 1967, the waning Union merged into the Steelworkers Union.